Wax modelling of anatomical corpses began in the late 17th century by the Sicilian wax artist Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues. The technique progressed as the need grew for “fresh” subjects for anatomy lessons. Each model was very time-consuming and many cadavers were needed for reference. Structures such as membranes were either painted or imitated using thread. Dissected women were later referred to as “Venuses”.